Dating ancient lamps
[See More Photos of the Amazing Byzantine Mosaics] "Usually a Byzantine village had a church, but the size of this church and its placement on the road makes it more important," Degen told Live Science.Remarkable finds The excavators plan to keep working on the site for another week, but one of the most remarkable finds so far was a mosaic containing a Christogram, or a "type of monogram of the name of Jesus," Degen said.During this period dating back to 25,000 - 3,000 BC the clay lamp designs developed very slowly.A simple saucer of fish oil, animal fat or vegetable oil in the center supplied with a woven fibrous wick could give ample light to a small room.
"(240) When Herod had fought against these in the avenues of Judea, he was conqueror in the battle, and drove away Antigonus, and returned to Jerusalem, beloved by everybody for the glorious action he had done; for those who did not before favor him, did join themselves to him now, because of his marriage into the family of Hyrcanus; (241) for as he had formerly married a wife out of his own country of no ignoble blood, who was called Doris, of whom he begat Antipater, "(325) But Messala contradicted them, on behalf of the young men, and all this in the presence of Hyrcanus, who was Herods father-in-law already.Their observations of the interaction of the heat and damp soil (clay) in this environment quickly led to the development of various vessels of need i.e., saucers, urns, and lamps.Their nights were no longer a time of fear and uncertainty.Enclosing the core was what appeared to be a ceramic collar that was itself encased in a hexagonal sleeve carved out of wood that had, presumably at a later date, become petrified.Around the petrified wooden enclosure was the outer layer of the geode, consisting of hardened clay, pebbles, bits of fossil shell, and two nonmagnetic metallic objects resembling a nail and a washer.
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Based on an approximate stratification and the composition of the outer crust, the object has been dated from 250,000 to 500,000 BCE, but the name of the geologist who provided the dating is not mentioned in any source material. Maxey stated that the object isnt magnetic now (article printed in 1969), but she apparently said it was magnetic in a February, 1961 article in Desert Magazine.